Risk and Protective Factors

Child

Investing in early childhood education for at-risk children is an effective strategy for reducing social costs and promoting economic growth. Specifically, Heckman’s most recent research found there is a 13% return on investment for every dollar spent on high quality early childhood programs 7 (James Heckman is a Distinguished Professor of Economics and Law at the University of Chicago. Among his many honors and recognitions, he won a Nobel Prize in Economics in 2000 for his work in microeconomics. He is known for his work in labor economics, in particular regarding the efficacy and return on investment of early childhood education programs).

Social-Emotional Competency

Social-emotional competence refers to a group of skills that are necessary for...

Early Education

Although studies have found variation in outcomes, high quality early educational experiences serve ...

Executive Function

Executive Function and social-emotional competency are distinct but interrelated ...


Family

The capacity and interest of parents to stimulate and guide their children impacts the child’s ability to develop both socially and academically.

Language

Maternal speech abilities and exposure to reading ...

Parenting

Parenting style has been associated with school readiness ...

Parent Education

Low maternal education has been found ...

Home Visiting

Home visiting is an approach ...


Financial Resources

Income has been found to be the single highest correlate of academic achievement.25

Poverty poses a significant barrier to school readiness. Perhaps the most significant impact is in the area of non-cognitive skills including socio-emotional development. Furthermore, the difficulties of poverty are often exacerbated by and inextricably linked to characteristics associated with poverty: lower parental education; single and teen parents; poor health; stress, depression, and anxiety; harsh parenting; and lack of cognitive stimulation. 2 ,26

Social - Emotional Impacts

Children growing up with low income-to-needs ratios ...

Cognitive Impacts

Income has been found to be the single highest ...

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School Readiness Resources